Chemically clean an iron nail from rust, assuming that the composition of the rust includes iron (III) oxide and iron (III) hydroxide.
First, you need to calcine the nail so that the iron (III) hydroxide turns into iron (III) oxide:
Fe (OH) 3 = Fe2O3 + H2O
Now we have only iron (III) oxide; iron is industrially reduced from it in two ways:
1) Passing hot hydrogen through it:
Fe2O3 + 3H2 = 2Fe + 3H2O
2) Passing carbon monoxide through it:
Fe2O3 + 3CO = 2Fe + 33CO2 ↑
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