Describe defensive structures and their role at the beginning of World War II.

The defensive structures of the Second World War include fortifications, long-term firing points (pillboxes) and bomb shelters. All these structures were sometimes used in a complex, and represented a whole line of defense, capable of holding back the enemy’s offensive for a certain time. One of the most famous is the Maginot Line, although it could not fully fulfill its function. German troops bypassed the fortified area through the Ardennes and forced the French garrison to surrender.

For a long time, pillboxes were successfully used by all belligerents, but effective in repelling infantry attacks, they were absolutely powerless against tanks. Subsequently, many armies of the world abandoned the active construction of long-term firing points.

Bomb shelters remain relevant to this day. During World War II, these capital structures saved the lives of many civilians on both sides of the barricades. The active use of artillery and aircraft in battles for cities destroyed buildings, and civilians could only survive underground.

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