Describe the chemical bond in the butane molecule. How many s and sp3 orbitals are involved in the formation of a σ bond?

The butane molecule C4H10 belongs to saturated hydrocarbons. The carbon atoms in them have sp3-hybridization. That is, one s and three p electrons of a carbon atom in an excited state change the shape of their orbitals to irregular eights. Four hybridized orbitals are obtained, which are located at an angle of 109.28 to each other. Each such orbital creates a chemical bond with one s-electron of the hydrogen atom. The maximum electron density for such bonds (called s-bonds) is located on the same line between the nuclei of carbon and hydrogen atoms.

The formation of the s-bond involves 1 s-electron of the hydrogen atom and one sp3-hybridized orbital of the carbon atom.

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