How is the phenomenon of electrification of bodies explained? What is the structure of the atom?

Electrization of bodies occurs either because the atoms lose electrons and then try to capture the missing ones, or, conversely, they grabbed extra electrons and tend to give them away somewhere. In either case, they begin to interact with other atoms, and electrification is obtained from this interaction.
The very structure of the atom is as follows: there is a nucleus, consisting of protons and neutrons, electrons revolve around it (in fact, they “revolve” it is said conventionally, the electron itself is not a small ball that flies around the nucleus in an orbit, it is smeared over space like a probabilistic cloud ). The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and how many electrons revolve around the nucleus determine the atom of which substance a particular atom is.
Protons and neutrons, in turn, are composed of quarks and gluons.

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