The main structural unit in the taxonomy of living organisms is the species. The concept of “species” as a category underlying taxonomy was first introduced at the end of the 16th century. English biologist John Ray.
A species is a set of individuals capable of freely interbreeding and producing fertile offspring, similar in morphological and physiological characteristics, having a common origin, occupying a common area in nature and adapted to certain environmental conditions.
A species is an integral element of living nature, separate from other species.
The integrity of a species is determined by the bonds that exist between its individuals. Living organisms can exist only if they interact with each other. Relationships between males and females, parents and their offspring, individuals of different ages in a family, herd, flock or colony make it possible to reproduce successfully, take care of the offspring, and provide protection from enemies. Intraspecific relationships ensure the existence of a species as an integral system.
The isolation of the species is due to a specific chromosome set and reproductive isolation. Individuals of one species cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring with individuals of other species. This is hindered by the peculiarities of the structure and functioning of the reproductive organs, different periods and places of reproduction, differences in behavior, etc. Due to reproductive isolation, species do not mix with each other.
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