What approaches to the periodization of world history existed in historical science? Give examples.

Periodization is one of the most difficult problems of historical science. There are several approaches to periodization, among which two main ones are put forward.

The first is the formational approach. proposed by Karl Marx. According to this approach, human society goes through in its development 5 main formations, which replace one another – primitive communal, slave-owning, feudal, capitalist, communist. But, for example, there was no slavery in Russia, and communism was rejected by modern society.

The second is the civilizational approach, according to which society goes through several stages of civilization development. For example Toibini put forward 30 civilizations. According to this principle, there is no single history of mankind, and history is a change of cultures.

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