What does the biosphere include?

The biosphere is a part of the Earth that encompasses absolutely all biological organisms, their living conditions, and their products of functioning. It is endowed with certain boundaries: 1) the upper boundary is the troposphere, namely the ozone layer, 2) the lower boundary is the lithosphere and also includes the hydrosphere. The biosphere contains the following 4 key groups of substances: 1) biological (living) substance – everything that inhabits the Earth, 2) inert substance (inanimate) – is formed without any activity of living beings, 2) biogenic substance is a consequence of the vital activity of organisms, 4) bioinert substance – is formed with the participation of biological organisms and indirect processes.

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