1. What forms of relationships have developed between animal species in nature? Describe the concepts of “producers”, “consumers”, “reducers”. Explain with examples. 3. Date of definition of the concepts “biocenosis”, “biogeocenosis” (“ecosystem”) 4. What is the importance of animals in nature? 5. What is the significance of animals for humans? 6. Give examples of the negative impact of humans on the number and diversity of animals. 7. What measures are being taken in our country and in the world to preserve rare animals? 8. What are the tasks of the science of taxonomy?
1. Forms of relationships between animals in nature: predation, parasitism, commensalism, mutualism.
2. Producers – organisms that create organic substances from inorganic ones.
Consumables are organisms that consume ready-made organic substances.
Reducers are organisms that convert dead remains of living organisms into inorganic or simple compounds.
3. Biocenosis – a set of living organisms living in a certain area and interacting with each other.
Biogeocenosis is a system that includes a community of living organisms and factors (biotic, abiotic) that affect their vital activity.
4. Many species of animals have a beneficial effect on the environment: underground animals enrich the soil with oxygen by creating holes, forest orderlies (animals that feed on carrion), insects that eat small pests, etc.
5. For humans, animals are also important: food, fur, enrichment of the soil with oxygen, which makes it more fertile, etc.
6. Poachers kill certain types of animals because of a certain trait. They can kill elephants because of the tusks. The fact of extermination of the blue macaw, Amur tigers, etc. is known. Man also destroys animal houses by cutting down trees.
7. Reserves, national parks, as well as the “Red Book” are created, where they are arrested for the extermination of an animal entered in the book.
8. The tasks of taxonomy include: identification, description, identification, classification and grouping of organisms according to common characteristics, vital activity and behavior.