Porcelain is a type of ceramic that is impervious to water and gas. They are usually obtained by high-temperature firing of a coarsely dispersed mixture of kaolin (Al2O3 * 2SiO2 * 2H2O), quartz (SiO2), feldspar (series K [AlSi3O8] – Na [AlSi3O8] – Ca [Al2Si2O8]) and plastic clay (mainly kaolin ions, with inclusions -chromophores).
Depending on the composition of the porcelain mass, a distinction is made between soft and hard porcelain. They differ not in hardness, but in a different amount of formation during firing of the liquid phase (more in soft, therefore, the risk of deformation of the workpiece during firing is higher).
Hard porcelain: composed of 47-66% kaolin, 25% quartz and 25% feldspar; richer in kaolin (alumina) and poorer in fluxes. The hardest porcelain is bone china, which contains up to 50% bone ash.
Soft Porcelain: Consists of 25-40% kaolin, 45% quartz and 30% feldspar.
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