The following points led to the strengthening of the power of the pope:
1. Conclusion of alliances with the royal houses of Spain, Portugal, France and the Holy Roman Empire.
2. An increase in the number of Catholics due to the conversion of the inhabitants of the colonies, mainly in the Americas.
The weakening of the papal power was facilitated by the following:
1. Periodic conflicts with the same Holy Roman Empire.
2. The emergence in the Renaissance of the current of “humanists”, which was directed towards secular life, and not religion.
3. Reformation. In the course of it, a number of states acquired their own religions based on Christianity, and, consequently, their ecclesiastical institutions.
4. Numerous armed conflicts. In particular, we are talking about Germany and France, where Catholics and Protestants opposed each other. You can also add about the defeats in the East.
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