What new phenomena in the development of the economy of Russia in the 13-15 centuries can be distinguished in comparison with the previous period?
The second half of the XIII century was characterized by decline due to the Mongol-Tatar invasion, the cessation of urban planning and stone construction. The XIV century is characterized by:
The enrichment of Moscow, and therefore stone churches first appeared in it, and then the Kremlin of white stone (by 1368).
The rise of the Tver principality, which was on trade routes, and its decline after the Mongol-Tatars raid Shchelkan (or Chol-Khan) in 1327.
Renewal of stone construction, for example, in Novgorod and Pskov.
At the beginning of the 15th century, Novgorod the Great became a member of the Hansa. And even the 15th century was characterized by the development of land on the Kama (Cherdyn, Usolye), penetration in 1499-1500 beyond the Urals (Yugra), the development of contacts with Europe, trade in furs, the beginning of enslavement of the peasants from 1497.
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