What peoples inhabited the Arab Caliphate?

The bulk of the population was made up of Arab tribes. The Arabs assimilated the Chaldeans, Arameans, Copts, and partly Berbers. The Caliphate was also inhabited by Armenians, Iranian-speaking peoples – Persians, Sogdians, Khorezmians, Hephtalites, Pashtuns, Baluchis, and Western Aryans – Sindhi, Punjabis. Later, Turkic tribes settled there.

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