The first to move deeper into the study of the structure of the atom, proving in practice the correctness of his theory, which said that the element consists of the smallest particles, was the scientist Dalton.
Dalton began by studying the volumes of gases, in particular – he found that the ratios of the particles of hydrogen and oxygen that reacted refer to each other as small whole numbers.
Based on the results of his research, Dalton formulated the “law of multiple ratios.” In 1811, Amodeo Avogadro put forward a hypothesis that made it possible to distinguish atoms from molecules. According to his theory, equal volumes of gases, for standard conditions, contain the same number of molecules.
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