Such powers were France, especially during the reign of Francis I (1515-1547), the Holy Roman Empire, Spain (especially during the reign of Charles V in 1516-1556), the Netherlands (in the first half of the 17th century they had a good army, a good economy and navy), as well as the Ottoman Empire, which by the middle of the 16th century had possessions in the Balkans and in central Europe almost to Vienna (in the 1520s they captured Hungary).
In Eastern Europe, the leader was the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1648 (before the uprising in Ukraine). For some period at the turn of the XVI-XVII centuries (until 1654) it was stronger than the Muscovy.
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