1. All living organisms are composed of the same classes of organic substances – lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids.
2. Complex biopolymers (proteins and nucleic acids) in all organisms have the same structure: proteins consist of 20 α-amino acids, and nucleic acids – of 5 nucleotides.
3. Biochemical processes in cells are similar. Thus, protein biosynthesis includes two stages: transcription and translation. The universal triplet code for storing and realizing hereditary information in all living organisms proves their common origin.
The evidence of macroevolution is the spread of animals and plants on the territory of the Earth.
It has been established that the earlier the separation of the individual parts of the planet took place, the more the organisms inhabiting these parts differ. Thus, the fauna of Australia is represented by species that are absent on other continents. Oviparous and marsupial mammals, which are not found in other parts of the planet, have survived here.
The species diversity of the islands is also interesting for understanding the evolutionary process. The composition of their flora and fauna depends on the origin of the islands. Islands of continental or oceanic origin are known.
The fauna and flora of the former are similar to the mainland (for example, the British Isles, Sakhalin), which indicates their recent isolation from the mainland. The older the island, the more differences accumulate.
The species composition of oceanic islands is very poor. Many terrestrial species are missing.
All the inhabitants of the oceanic islands appeared there by chance.
This means that the distribution of species of animals and plants on the surface of the Earth is the result of its historical development and the evolution of the animal and plant world.