CH3-CH = CH-CH2-CH = CH2
Carbon in organic compounds is tetravalent. In order to create equivalent bonds of a carbon atom with similar ones, with hydrogen or other atoms, hybridization occurs – a change in orbitals in shape and energy.
Hybridization depends on the number of “neighbors” of the carbon atom, i. E. the number of atoms with which it forms bonds. If carbon is attached to two other atoms, sp hybridization occurs: it involves two orbitals, s and p. Accordingly, if carbon forms three bonds with three different atoms, sp2 hybridization (three orbitals) takes place. If there are four bonds, then sp3 (four orbitals hybridize).
The figure shows a scheme for the hybridization of carbon in a methane molecule.
According to the above principles, we determine the hybridization. It turns out the following sequence: sp3, sp2, sp2, sp3, sp2, sp2. A total of 4 sp2-hybridized atoms.
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