Scientists suggest that more than 10 million species of living organisms currently live on the planet. Therefore, it is very important to classify them, that is, to distribute them into groups in a certain sequence.
Classification – the distribution of objects into subordinate groups in accordance with certain characteristics.
Taxonomy deals with the classification of living organisms.
Taxonomy is the science of the diversity of species and the relationships between them.
In modern systematics, the features of the origin and historical development, internal and external structure, reproduction, embryonic development, etc. are considered.
He created the first scientific system of living nature in the middle of the 18th century. Swedish scientist Karl Linnaeus.
The taxonomy of living organisms is based on two principles: binary nomenclature and hierarchy (subordination).
The binary nomenclature provides for a double name for each species. It consists of a noun and an adjective. A noun indicates the genus of a species, and an adjective indicates a species. For example, a honey bee, a field jar.
Hierarchy (subordination) is the order of subordination of lower systematic categories to higher ones.
Close (related) species of animals are united into genera, close genera form families, related families form orders, orders are united into classes, classes – into types, and types – into a kingdom. When classifying bacteria, fungi and plants, order is used instead of order, and department instead of type.
Additional categories are also used: subclass, superclass, subtype, super-kingdom.
Sometimes in taxonomy they use such a category as empire. There are two kingdoms – eukaryotes (nuclear) and prokaryotes (prenuclear), which are included in the empire of cellular organisms. The second empire is represented by non-cellular life forms – viruses.