Compare the trade routes to the countries of the East in the Middle Ages and in the era of great geographical discoveries.

In the Middle Ages, from Europe to the countries of the East, the trade route went through the eastern Mediterranean, the territory of modern Turkey and the Black Sea. It was first controlled by the Byzantines (until the XI century), and then the Crusaders (XII-early XIII century) and the trading republics of northern Italy – Venice and Genoa. From the middle of the 15th century, it finally came under the control of the Ottoman Empire.

In the era of great geographical discoveries, another trade route appeared – to India, bypassing Africa. The Portuguese were the first to cross it at the end of the 15th century, followed by the Dutch (in the middle of the 17th century they had already founded their colonies in South Africa). By the middle of the 16th century, they reached Japan and China.

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