In 1859, Charles Darwin’s book “The Origin of Species by Natural Selection or Preservation of Favorable Breeds in the Struggle for Life” was published, in which the scientist outlined the foundations of evolutionary teaching.
The essence of the evolutionary teachings of Charles Darwin
1. All types of living organisms that exist on Earth were not created by anyone.
2. Organisms appeared naturally. They were gradually transformed and improved in accordance with their environment.
3. Driving forces, or factors, evolution:
- hereditary (undefined) variability;
- struggle for existence;
- natural selection.
4. Results of evolution:
- a gradual increase in the organization of living organisms;
- the relative adaptability of living organisms to living conditions;
- variety of species.
The mechanism of the emergence of new species
1. Living organisms have many differences due to variability.
2. The intensity of reproduction of species is high, and much more individuals are born than they can survive in specific environmental conditions. Therefore, there is competition for resources, that is, a struggle for existence.
3. The result of the struggle for existence is natural selection, in which individuals most adapted to environmental conditions survive and leave offspring.
4. Surviving individuals pass on beneficial traits to their offspring.
5. Over many generations, individuals can differ significantly from the original form. A new species is formed.
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