Give the characterization of the chemical element carbon according to the plan.

[I] Symbol of a chemical element and its name:
Chemical element number 6 – carbon. Indicated by the symbol “C”.
[II] The position of a chemical element in the periodic table of elements D.I. Mendeleev:
1) The ordinal number of the element is 6.
2) Carbon is in period 2.
3) Carbon – a representative of the IV group of the periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev.
4) This element is included in the main subgroup.
[III] The structure of the atom of a chemical element:
1) The charge of the nucleus of the carbon atom is 6 (the charge of the nucleus corresponds to the ordinal number of the element).
2) The relative atomic mass of carbon is 12.
3) The number of protons is also 6 (it is the protons that form the charge of the atomic nucleus).
4) There are also 6 electrons in carbon (the atom is generally neutral and 6 protons correspond to 6 electrons).
5) To determine the number of neutrons, you need to subtract the number of protons of the atom of this element from the relative atomic mass of an element. 12-6 = 6. So the number of neutrons is 6.
6) The carbon atom has two electronic layers, since it is in the 2nd period of the periodic system of D.I.Mendeleev.
[IV] Electronic and electron-graphic formulas of an atom, its valence electrons.
6C 1S2 2S2 2P2
The valence electrons are 2S2 and 2P2, that is, the electrons of the outer electron layer.
[V] Determine the type of chemical element (metal or non-metal, s-, p-, d- or f-element)
Carbon belongs to non-metals. Since the p-sublevel of electrons is filled last, this element belongs to the p-family.
[VI] We draw up the formulas of the higher oxide and hydroxide of carbon and characterize their properties (basic, acidic or amphoteric)
Superior oxide CO2 formula. It is an acidic oxide as it forms acid.
C (OH) 4 – hydroxide. It corresponds to the acid H4CO4, which decomposes to carbonic acid.
[VII] Let us compare the non-metallic properties of carbon with the properties of neighboring elements by period and subgroup.
Carbon has the strongest non-metallic properties in its group and is stronger than silicon. In the period, carbon is stronger than boron, but weaker than nitrogen.
[VIII] Determine the maximum and minimum oxidation state of the carbon atom.
The maximum oxidation state of carbon is -4 (in methane). And the maximum is +4.

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