Hardy-Weinberg law

Under certain conditions, the population is in a state of genetic equilibrium, that is, its gene pool does not change from generation to generation. This is the equilibrium principle, or Hardy-Weinberg’s law.

In an ideal population, over a number of generations, a constant ratio of the frequencies of genes, homozygotes and heterozygotes remains unchanged.

The ideal population is characterized by the following characteristics:

  • the number of individuals is large enough;
  • individuals interbreed freely;
  • mutations do not occur;
  • no migration from neighboring populations;
  • there is no natural selection.

Hardy-Weinberg’s law allows you to determine the frequencies of genes and genotypes.

The frequency of the dominant gene A is usually denoted by the letter p, and the frequency of the recessive gene a by the letter q.

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