How many degrees the water will heat up if it falls from a height of 40 m, considering that 50% of mechanical energy is transferred into internal energy.
Given: h (height from which the water fell) = 40 m; η (percentage of mechanical energy that will be converted into internal energy) = 50% (0.5).
Constants: g (acceleration of gravity) = 9.8 m / s2; С (ude. Heat capacity of water) = 4200 J / (kg * ºС).
The increase in water temperature when falling from 40 m is determined from the formula: η = C * m * Δt / (m * g * h); η * g * h = C * Δt, whence Δt = η * g * h / С.
Calculation: Δt = 0.5 * 9.8 * 40/4200 = 0.047 ºС.
Answer: When water falls from a height of 40 meters, it heats up by 0.047 ºС.
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