In what century was France centralized? Has Holland strengthened? Is Spain centralized?

Centralization in France took place in the XIII-XV centuries. Its final stage was the years after the Hundred Years War (ended in 1453). For example, from 1484 the king stopped collecting the States General. The formation of absolutism in France took place in the first half of the 16th century under Francis I.

The period of the strengthening of Holland was the 16th century. The reason for this was an increase in orders for Dutch artisans and an increase in trade after the discovery of the New World by the Spaniards and the beginning of the import of gold, silver and other goods from there. This process, together with the Reformation of the 16th century, turned into the Dutch revolution and the struggle for the independence of the Netherlands, which ended de jure in 1648, however, after 4 years a war began with England, which weakened the Netherlands.

The centralization of Spain dates back to the beginning of the 18th century, this is the period of the reign of Philip V of Bourbon, he ended the autonomy of Aragon and limited the self-government of Catalonia, but the Basques and Navarre retained their laws.

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