The wave of revolutions of 1848-1849 began in France. The real reasons for the revolutions were, of course, economic. The crop failures of 1845-47 triggered a wave of bankruptcies that led to an economic crisis. The French economy was already significantly integrated into the economy of all of Europe, so that events in France would affect other countries. They touched upon Germany, which suffered from fragmentation and feudal remnants, the Austrian Empire, unable to resolve the national question, Italy, where a movement for independence from Austria arose. Herzen admitted that the revolution was beaten in all places. The governments, not without the help of the Russian Empire, were able to turn the tide and direct political and economic life in a constructive direction.
One of the components of a person's success in our time is receiving modern high-quality education, mastering the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary for life in society. A person today needs to study almost all his life, mastering everything new and new, acquiring the necessary professional qualities.