Paleontological evidence for evolution includes:
- fossil remains of organisms of extinct species;
- fossil transitional forms;
- phylogenetic series of modern species.
Transitional fossils are extinct organisms that combine features from older and younger groups.
Transitional forms make it possible to establish family ties between modern and extinct organisms. The presence of transitional forms proves the historical development of living nature and helps in building a natural system of flora and fauna.
- cross-finned fishes – stegocephals – amphibians;
- reptiles – archeopteryx – birds;
- reptiles – lizardmen – mammals;
- algae – psilophytes – spore plants;
- ferns – seed ferns – gymnosperms.
Phylogenetic (paleontological) series are sequences of transitional fossil forms that reflect the evolution of modern species.
The establishment of phylogenetic series proves the existence of an evolutionary process and the possibility of the origin of one species from another.
- phylogenetic series of the modern horse;
- phylogenetic series of a person;
- phylogenetic series of proboscis.
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