# Sometimes as a baking powder, a substance is used that decomposes into ammonia and carbon dioxide at high temperatures

Sometimes as a baking powder, a substance is used that decomposes into ammonia and carbon dioxide at high temperatures in a hot oven. How much (in liters) did the dough volume increase in the oven at a pressure of 1 atm and a temperature of 1800C, if 3.4 g of ammonia and 4.4 g of carbon dioxide were formed during baking? How will the volume of baked goods change when cooled to room temperature (200C) at normal atmospheric pressure, if 15% of “culinary” gases remain in the product?

m (NH3) = 3.4 g; M (NH3) = 17 g / mol;
ν (NH3) = 3.4g / 17g / mol = 0.2 mol;
m (CO2) = 4.4 g; M (CO2) = 44 g / mol;
ν (CO2) = 4.4 g / 44 g / mol = 0.1 mol;
Vm = 22.2 L / mol;
V (NH3) = ν * Vm = 0.2 * 22.4 = 4.48 liters;
V (CO2) = 0.1 * 22.4 = 2.24 l.
The volume by which the dough increased when heated:
V = 4.48 + 2.24 = 6.72 liters.
As it cools, the volume will decrease. By condition, 15% of gases remained:
6.72 * 0.15 = 1.008 l.
The volume by which the dough will eventually change during the cooking process from the moment of heating to cooling:
6.72 – 1.008 = 5.712 liters.

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