The position of man in the system of the animal world

Evidence of human ancestry from animals

The facts proving the relationship between man and animals include the similarity of the external and internal structure, the similarity of the early stages of embryonic development, as well as the presence of rudimentary organs. Rudiments are coccyx, cutaneous musculature, third eyelid, appendix, ear muscle, wisdom teeth, etc.

Evidence of animal origin includes the appearance of atavisms, examples of which are the outer tail, multi-nipple, developed hair on the body, etc.

The fossil remains of human ancestors discovered by scientists are indisputable evidence of the origin of man.

The place of man in the zoological system

In the system of the animal world, man occupies the following position: type Chordates, subtype Vertebrates, class Mammals, order Primates, suborder Anthropoid, family Hominids, genus Man, species Homo sapiens.

Signs of the Chordate type are manifested in embryonic development. It:

  • the presence of a notochord in the embryo;
  • development of the neural tube on the dorsal side of the embryo;
  • gill slits in the pharynx.

A person’s belonging to the subtype Vertebrates are determined by:

  • the formation of the skull and spine;
  • the presence of two pairs of limbs;
  • the location of the heart on the abdominal side of the body.

The human body has all the characteristics of the class Mammals. Him:

  • the cervical spine of seven vertebrae;
  • there is a diaphragm that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity;
  • teeth are subdivided into incisors, canines and molars;
  • there are lips;
  • the heart has four chambers;
  • preserved the left aortic arch;
  • there is an auricle and three auditory ossicles in the middle ear
  • skin with hair, sweat and sebaceous glands;
  • there are mammary glands.

Signs of the subclass Placental:

  • constant body temperature;
  • intrauterine development;
  • live birth.

The greatest resemblance between humans and primates. Signs of the Primate squad:

  • large mass of the brain;
  • five-fingered grasping limb;
  • fingernails;
  • papillary patterns on the tips of the fingers, palms and feet;
  • well-developed collarbones;
  • one pair of mammary glands;
  • replacement of milk teeth with permanent ones;
  • binocular vision.

Similarities between great apes and humans:

  • short body and long limbs;
  • reduction of the caudal vertebrae;
  • similar structure of the cerebral and facial parts of the skull;
  • well-developed frontal lobes of the brain;
  • a large number of convolutions of the cerebral cortex;
  • the presence of facial muscles;
  • similar blood groups.

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