What is a nephron? How does it work? How does it work?

The nephron is a structural and functional unit of the kidney. Participates in blood filtration and urine formation. Nephrons are divided into cortical and juxtamedullary by type of structure. The vast majority of nephrons are cortical. They are called so because they are located in the upper cortex of the kidney. The nephron consists of the renal corpuscle, which forms the Bowman-Shumlyansky capsule and the renal tubule. Inside the capsule are a glomerulus of blood capillaries. The round renal corpuscle narrows and forms a renal tubule that flows into the collecting tube. Inside the capsule of the nephron, urine is formed. Blood plasma without proteins enters the capsule from the blood vessels. The capillary walls themselves and the capsule walls serve as filters. This fluid is the primary urine. It forms up to 170 liters per day. Primary urine enters the nephron tubules and is reabsorbed there – reabsorption of water, amino acids, glucose, many vitamins and salts, and other substances into the blood capillaries. As a result, secondary or final urine is formed. It consists of urea, uric acid and other substances that are unnecessary and harmful to the body.
The final urine formed in the renal tubule enters the small renal cups through the collecting ducts, from there it enters the large cups. Then urine is collected in the renal pelvis and from there through the ureters enters the bladder.

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