These achievements were attributed to two factors:
The legacy of the Renaissance, it just fell on the XV-XVI century. The activities of Leonardo da Vinci and other inventors are associated with this period.
The beginning of the first scientific revolution. It is associated with the heliocentric system of Copernicus and the foundation of experimental physics by Galileo.
Among the technical achievements of that period are arquebuses and muskets, they even penetrated into Japan in the middle of the 16th century together with the Europeans.
One of the components of a person's success in our time is receiving modern high-quality education, mastering the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary for life in society. A person today needs to study almost all his life, mastering everything new and new, acquiring the necessary professional qualities.